Adalah kegiatan menganalisis sesuatu yang dilakukan oleh pihak ketiga dan / atau pihak terkait.


Adalah kegiatan menganalisa sebuah obyek secara detail dan sistematis sesuai dengan standar patokan untuk maksud tertentu.


Orang yang ditugaskan melakukan surveying.



A math model which depicts a part of the surface of the earth. Latitude and longitude lines on a paper map are referenced to a specific map datum. The map datum selected on a GPS receiver needs to match the datum listed on the corresponding paper map in order for position readings to match.


See Depth Controlled Gain.

Depth Controlled Gain (DCG)

A Garmin proprietary technology that automatically adjusts fishfinder sensitivity according to depth, not echo intensity. The result is a much more detailed and accurate picture of bottom structure.

Desired Track (DTK) 

The compass course between the "from" and "to" waypoints. 


See Differential GPS.

Differential GPS (DGPS) 

An extension of the GPS system that uses land-based radio beacons to transmit position corrections to GPS receivers. DGPS reduces the effect of selective availability, propagation delay, etc. and can improve position accuracy to better than 10 meters. 

Dilution Of Precision (DOP) 

A measure of the GPS receiver/satellite geometry. A low DOP value indicates better relative geometry and higher corresponding accuracy. The DOP indicators are GDOP (geometric DOP), PDOP (position DOP), HDOP (horizontal DOP), VDOP (vertical DOP), and TDOP (time clock offset).


The length (in feet, meters, miles, etc.) between two waypoints or from your current position to a destination waypoint. This length can be measured in straight-line (rhumb line) or great-circle (over the earth) terms. GPS normally uses great circle calculations for distance and desired track.


The United States Department of Defense. The DOD manages and controls the Global Positioning System.


See Dilution Of Precision.


A transmission path for the communication of signals and data from a communications satellite or other space vehicle to the earth.


See Desired Track.


The distance above or below mean sea level. 


A geometric surface, all of whose plane sections are either ellipses or circles.

Ephemeris Data

Current satellite position and timing information transmitted as part of the satellite data message. A set of ephemeris data is valid for several hours.



See Estimated Position Error.

Estimated Position Error (EPE) 

A measurement of horizontal position error in feet or meters based upon a variety of factors including DOP and satellite signal quality. 

Estimated Time Enroute (ETE) 

The time it will take to reach your destination (in hours/minutes or minutes/seconds) based upon your present position, speed, and course. 

Estimated Time Of Arrival (ETA) 

The estimated time you will arrive at a destination.


See Estimated Time Of Arrival.


See Estimated Time Enroute. 


The number of repetitions per unit time of a complete waveform, as of a radio wave (see L1 and L2 frequencies in this glossary).

 G - M 


A high-tech version of hide-and-seek. Geocachers seek out hidden treasures utilizing GPS coordinates posted on the Internet by those hiding the cache.

Geodetic Datum

A math model representing the size and shape of the earth (or a portion of it).

Geographic Information System (GIS)

A computer system or software capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information (i.e., data identified according to their location). In practical use, GIS often refers to the computer system, software, and the data collection equipment, personnel, and actual data.

Geosynchronous Orbit

A specific orbit around where a satellite rotates around the earth at the same rotational speed as the earth. A satellite rotating in geosynchronous orbit appears to remain stationary when viewed from a point on or near the equator. It is also referred to as a geostationary orbit.


North Up Orientation

Fixes the GPS receiver’s map display so north is always fixed at the top of the screen.


A Garmin-proprietary feature that allows the user to move the pointer and pan a track in either direction, then select a location along the track to start a TracBack® or GoTo, or to mark a waypoint.

Parallel Channel Receiver

A continuous tracking receiver using multiple receiver circuits to track more than one satellite simultaneously.


The precise code of the GPS signal typically used only by the U.S. military. It is encrypted and reset every seven days to prevent use from unauthorized persons.


A single display element on an LCD screen. The more pixels, the higher the resolution and definition.


An exact, unique location based on a geographic coordinate system.

Position Fix

The GPS receiver's computed position coordinates.

Position Format

The way in which the GPS receiver's position will be displayed on the screen. Commonly displayed as latitude/longitude in degrees and minutes, with options for degrees, minutes and seconds, degrees only, or one of several grid formats.

Prime Meridian

The zero meridian, used as a reference line from which longitude east and west is measured. It passes through Greenwich, England.

Pseudo-Random Code

The identifying signature signal transmitted by each GPS satellite and mirrored by the GPS receiver in order to separate and retrieve the signal from background noise.


The measured distance between the GPS receiver and the GPS satellite using uncorrected time comparisons from satellite-transmitted code and the local receiver's reference code.

Quadrifilar Helix Antenna

A type of GPS antenna in which four spiraling elements form the receiving surface of the antenna. For GPS use, quadrifilar antennas are typically half-wavelength or quarter-wavelength size and encased in a plastic cylinder for durability.


A serial input/output standard that allows for compatibility between data communication equipment made by various manufacturers.

Radio Technical Commission For Maritime Services (RTCM) Special Committee 104

A committee created for the purposes of establishing standards and guidance for interfacing between radio beacon-based data links and GPS receivers, and to provide standards for ground-based differential GPS stations.


Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring; A GPS receiver system that would allow the receiver to detect incorrect signals being transmitted by the satellites by comparing solutions with different sets of satellites.


A group of waypoints entered into the GPS receiver in the sequence you desire to navigate them.


See Selective Availability.

Search The Sky

A message shown when a GPS receiver is gathering satellite almanac data. This data tells the GPS receiver where to look for each GPS satellite.

Serial Communication

Global Positioning System (GPS) adalah satu-satunya sistem navigasi satelit yang berfungsi dengan baik. Sistem ini menggunakan 24 satelit yang mengirimkan sinyal gelombang mikro ke Bumi. Sinyal ini diterima oleh alat penerima di permukaan, dan digunakan untuk menentukan posisi, kecepatan, arah, dan waktu. Sistem yang serupa dengan GPS antara lain GLONASSRusiaGalileo Uni EropaIRNSS India.